Oral Diseases and Treatments: Herpes Lesions
Dental and oral health is essential for your overall health and well-being. However, some people just don’t seem to consider it as essential as they would consider taking care of their other body parts. That’s often why even a minor symptom becomes a full-fledged oral disease.
Oral diseases are a group of conditions that affect the mouth and throat. These conditions affect the mouth and its surrounding structures and can be divided into two groups:
- Primary oral diseases include gum disease, periodontal disease (disease of the gum tissue), tooth decay, and oral cancer.
- Secondary oral diseases include cold sores or fever blisters on the lips or tongue, dry mouth (xerostomia), halitosis (bad breath) from poor dental hygiene, stomatitis (inflammation of the mucous membranes in the mouth) from an allergy to a food or drink, and fungal infections such as thrush (oral candidiasis).
Aphthae is a skin condition that causes small, painful ulcers on the lips and around the mouth. It can also cause pain in the gums or inside the cheeks. Aphthae usually appear as red bumps or sores that are often filled with pus. The sores may be very itchy and bleed easily. They may also look like acne lesions, but the particular acne infection does not cause them.
Lichen Planus is a skin condition that causes itchy, red, and scaly patches on the skin. It occurs when the body’s immune system attacks healthy tissue in the skin. The symptoms of Lichen Planus can vary from person to person, but they usually include:
- Red or pinkish-red flat lesions (patches) on your hands and feet with small white bumps at their centers. You may also experience swelling of the affected area.
- Sores don’t heal for more than two weeks after you first notice them. These sores may be individual or multiple. They may also appear as raised areas with a bumpy texture.
- Painful skin lesions may appear anywhere on the body, especially in the groin or armpits. The lesions can be red and raised, but they do not blister. They also tend to itch and burn. In some cases, there is a rash with blisters or small bumps (papules).
- Redness or swelling of the skin that does not go away after several days.
- Itching in areas where you have painless skin changes (such as your face near your mouth).
- A mild fever for no apparent reason.
Hemangioma is a benign tumor that develops in the blood vessels of the skin, bone, and other organs. It is also known as capillary hemangioma or venous malformation. Hemangiomas often occur on the face, neck, and scalp but can also be found anywhere else on the body. Hemangiomas can occur at any age, but they are most common in children between 1 month and five years of age. They may also occur later in life, especially after puberty.
The tumors are usually red or purple and may have a slightly raised surface texture. They can range from small to large, with some being large (up to one inch). Most hemangiomas are not painful but can become itchy if scratched, leading to secondary infection. Also, they mainly affect only one area of the body. However, some hemangiomas spread to other parts of your body too.
Fungal Diseases in Mouth
Oral Candidiasis Infection- Oral Thrush
Oral candidiasis, often known as oral thrush, is a disorder where Candida albicans build up on the mouth’s lining. Creamy white lesions are a symptom of oral thrush, often appearing on the tongue’s surface or inner cheeks. Oral thrush can occasionally spread to the throat, tonsils, gums or back. Although anybody can have oral thrush, it is more common in newborns and older adults due to their weakened immune systems and in other people with weakened immune systems, specific medical problems or those who take drugs. Oral thrush is a minor issue if you have a strong immune system, but if you do not, symptoms might be more severe and unmanageable.
Oral Cavity Cancer
Oral Cavity Cancer is generalized as the carcinogenic growth of tumors in the oral cavity that can affect the lips, tongue, cheek, upper or lower palate and throat. When it manifests as white spots or bleeding sores around the lips or mouth, oral cancer might appear to be a common disease. The fact that these abnormalities resurface sets suspected cancer apart from inherent mouth diseases like ulcers or inflammation. If oral cancer is not treated, it can spread from your oral cavity to other parts of your neck and head.
Many dental treatments are quite straightforward and come with minimal complications if performed properly. However, many people suffer from systemic health conditions that could make the treatment more complicated. Systemic diseases could greatly interfere with even the simplest of dental procedures. Therefore, it is important for a dentist to thoroughly examine the patient and possibly get clearance from their doctors as well before getting treatment.
In some patients with heart disease, endocarditis prophylaxis is necessary before treatment. Patients with prosthetic valves, history of bacterial endocarditis, treated congenital conditions and patients with transplants usually require prophylaxis.
People with blood disorders that can cause problems with blood coagulation should get clearance by their doctors before getting dental treatment as well. Sometimes they need to take extra medication in the form of clotting factors. Even anesthesia needs to be administered carefully to patients with blood disorders to ensure that the site of anesthesia heals properly.
If the patient has a tumor in their mouth, a tooth extraction close to that site could allow the tumor to invade other areas of the mouth, such as the tooth socket. Therefore, dental procedures on people with cancers should only be performed when they are being treated effectively. Other than that, cancers of the blood may prevent proper healing during a dental treatment as well.
People with endocrinal disorders such as diabetes will have to alter their medications and get cleared by their doctors before getting invasive treatments. People with other conditions such as hypothyroidism will also need clearance or alternative forms of anesthesia to make the procedure painless.
People with epilepsy or other neurological conditions that can cause regular seizures will have to have treatment in environments that do not trigger their seizures. Other than that, people with
Epilepsy should also only be given fixed dental appliances that cannot be swallowed during an episode.
Good immunity is of utmost importance during treatment. A patient with compromised immunity, such as those of people suffering from HIV and AIDS will be at a very high risk of developing infections during dental treatment. Kaposi’s Sarcoma, hairy leukoplakia, candidiasis and some ulcers are common complications of dental procedures.
Certain drugs interfere with dental treatments or with the healing process after dental treatments. Common complications include dry mouth, especially in older patients. Drugs that prevent effective blood clotting such as NSAIDS or aspirin should also be stopped before dental treatments. Lastly, people taking drugs that cause gingival hyperplasia should also be stopped before treatment.